Quantum mechanics and the general theory of relativity are the two main pillars of Physics. They are one of the most successful theories that have stood various tests through time. There is no concrete theory with experimental proof that combines these two. However, quantum mechanics and special relativity were combined by the strange man of physics, aka Paul Dirac. Today, let us learn about the Dirac equation that also predicted the existence of anti-matter.

Why a new equation?

Dirac Equation And The Existence Of Antimatter 1
The Schrodinger Wave Equation

Before studying the Dirac equation, let us answer this question. Before Dirac, we had the Schrodinger Wave Equation (SWE). This equation was easy to use and provided the total energy and wave function of any quantum state. The wave function is the most important parameter in quantum mechanics. Once you know the wave function, you can get everything. However, the SWE had a problem: it was too simple. In reality, some corrections need to be added to any system before using it.

For example, suppose we apply a potential V to a system and solve the SWE for the wave function. The answer will not be accurate. This is because we have ignored so many other factors that affect the potential. The potential is modified by the electron-electron repulsion, for example. So SWE isn’t a very accurate equation. Moreover, electrons that are orbiting the nucleus are relativistic. SWE doesn’t take into account this fact. Hence, to synchronize quantum mechanics with special relativity, a new equation was required.

More in Physics:

The first attempt: Klein-Gordon equation

The first attempt to combine relativity and quantum mechanics came in the form of the Klein-Gordon equation. I will try to get into the minimum mathematical details in this article. The Schrodinger wave equation is this:

Dirac Equation And The Existence Of Antimatter 2
The Schrodinger wave equation

The left side represents the square of the momentum operator divided by twice the mass, which is the non-relativistic kinetic energy. From special relativity, the total energy of a particle is given by the momentum-energy relation: E2 = p2 c2 + m2 c4, where p is the momentum. Substituting this in the momentum operator, we get the Klein Gordon equation:

Dirac Equation And The Existence Of Antimatter 3
The Klein Gordon equation (precursor to the Dirac equation)

Don’t worry about mathematics. It is not very simple. What is more important to understand is the physical significance of this equation. KG equation is the first attempt to combine the two fields of physics, but there are two problems in this equation. First is that if we consider the solutions of this equation, we get particles that have negative energy (negative energy solutions). The second is the negative probability density. Schrodinger himself derived this equation in the beginning but later discarded it due to negative energy solutions. Negative energy does not make sense at all!

Also read:

The Dirac equation

This is the time Paul Dirac comes into the picture. Dirac worked on solving these two problems and combining special relativity and quantum mechanics. With rigorous mathematical efforts, he derived an equation that did solve the problem of the negative probability density but still had negative energy solutions in it.

Now you might be thinking that why don’t we just discard the negative energy solutions like in classical mechanics. We know that negative energy isn’t possible. The answer is: algebra doesn’t allow us to do so. To form a complete set of solutions, we need negative energy solutions too. The Dirac equation is something like this.

Dirac Equation
The Dirac Equation

Dirac’s explanation: The hole theory

With no other option left, Dirac thought of an explanation to these particles with negative energy. The puzzle that he wanted to solve was that if electrons have positive energy (which they really have) and when a photon interacts with this electron, an electron will decay into negative energy. But this doesn’t happen. Why?

Dirac Equation And The Existence Of Antimatter 4

Dirac came up with an idea. He said that all the negative energy states are already occupied. This description of the vacuum as a “sea” of electrons is called the Dirac sea. Since the Pauli exclusion principle forbids electrons from occupying the same state, any additional electron would be forced to occupy a positive-energy state, and positive-energy electrons would be forbidden from decaying into negative-energy states. Dirac further reasoned that if the negative-energy states are incompletely filled, each unoccupied state – called a hole – would behave like a positively charged particle. 


Dirac argued that the hole should be a proton, which is positive. He did not realize that the hole should be of the same mass as that of an electron. In fact, a proton is 1,836 times heavier than an electron. In 1932, a few years after the Dirac equation was proposed, Carl Anderson discovered the first anti-particle: the positron. An anti-particle has the same mass but opposite charge as compared to ordinary matter. It was the antimatter that actually corresponded to the negative energy solutions. So antimatter was first predicted theoretically.

The Dirac equation was the first successful attempt to combine special relativity and quantum mechanics. However, the fields of general relativity and quantum mechanics are yet to be combined. This is the most important unsolved problem in physics.

Learn Astrophysics at Home:

Did you always want to learn how the universe works? Read our 30-article Basics of Astrophysics series absolutely free of cost. From the popular topics such as stars, galaxies, and black holes to the detailed concepts of the subject like the concept of magnitude, the Hertzsprung Russell diagram, redshift, etc., there is something for everyone in this series. All the articles are given here. Happy reading!

Notify of
Inline Feedbacks
View all comments

Is it d^mu or partial derivative? I think there should be a partial derivative.


[…] between two sufficiently energetic photons should create matter in the form of a particle and its antiparticle. This process was first described by American physicists Gregory Breit and John Wheeler in 1934. […]


[…] Understanding the Dirac equation and antimatter […]

John Z Dill shown to be the actual driver of
John Z Dill shown to be the actual driver of

Hello Sir,
I always enjoy your posts. I have a question of significant relativity to physics, both classical and quantum. We exist within a strange, as yet unidentified, ocean of SPACE. It is our dimensional placeholder. Yet it remains a mystery to this day. Is it true 99.9% of every atom is SPACE?
So I ask you, what if SPACE is the initial source of all energy funding all transitional compkexities in the universe? The NEGATIVE aspect simply indicating that this ocean has field dynamics of high speed motion. Hence SPACE as a dynamic energy monentum, all of it moving in one direction in a curved line motion, a large percentage of it moving above C. In fact, what if C is the critical spectrum of speed where this virtual dark energy SPACE begins to condense towards matter and mass, beginning with photons? What if that spectrum of speed is where the NEGATIVE begins tranducing towards POSITIVE and all the remaining quantum dynanics emerge towards the formation of matter and forces? What if the vacuum is a product of this high speed rotational metric and is equivalent to a universal gravity, meaning the vacuum displays the same properties across the visible universe as gravity displays locally relative to mass? What if this high speed rotational energy momentum tensor could be the actual driver of the Cosmological constant and the gravity like effect of the vacuum is the regulator of the pace of this expansion? And what if the continual formation of matter thruout the universe is reducing the magnitude of the vacuum which allows the pace of expansion to increase?



[…] quantum theory and special relativity, to describe the behavior of an electron. Undoubtedly, The Dirac equation won him the 1933 Nobel Prize but also posed another problem – just as the equation x2=1 can […]


[…] The Dirac equation and the existence of antimatter […]


[…] Understanding the Dirac equation and antimatter […]


[…] greatest minds of the 20th century. Dirac is famous for a marvelous equation named after him: The Dirac Equation which connects special relativity and quantum mechanics. The equation also predicted the existence […]


[…] How to understand the Dirac Equation in quantum mechanics? […]


[…] Understanding the Dirac equation and anti-matter […]


[…] Dirac Equation And The Existence Of Antimatter […]


[…] Understanding the Dirac equation of quantum mechanics […]


[…] Understanding Dirac’s equation […]


[…] instance, the Future Circular Collider would allow us to explore dark-matter and anti-matter. However, such considerations remain purely speculative and the only relative certainty the […]


[…] Understanding the Dirac equation and antimatter […]

Chaitanya Kumar Konda
Chaitanya Kumar Konda

Sir, How to start studying ‘Quantaum Mechanics’. I have just finished my 2nd P U.
What are the part of Mathematics I need to study before starting ‘Quantum Mechanics’. Please guide me Sir..

Piyush Arora
Piyush Arora

Hello, your articles are superb!

Would love your thoughts, please comment.x
Scroll to Top